Istoricul Benedetto Croce a votat pentru monarhia constituţională la referendumul din Italia din iunie 1946. Ca preşedinte al Partidului Liberal până în anul 1947, a impus partidului său să adopte o poziţie neutră faţă de respectiva consultare publică. A refuzat să fie preşedinte interimar al Republicii Italiene.
„In 1944, when democracy was restored in Southern Italy, Croce, as an „icon of liberal anti-fascism„, became minister without portfolio in governments headed by Pietro Badoglio and by Ivanoe Bonomi (Ryn, 2000:xi–xii). He left the government in July 1944 but remained president of the Liberal Party until 1947 (Ryn, 2000:xii).
Croce voted for the Monarchy in the Constitutional referendum of June 1946, after having persuaded his Liberal party to adopt a neutral stance.
He was elected to the Constituent Assembly which existed in Italy between June 1946 and January 1948. He spoke in the Assembly against the Peace treaty (signed in February 1947), which he regarded as humiliating for Italy.
He declined to stand as provisional President of Italy.„